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Healthy birds show a flat and smooth cere (males) or at most only a bit rough cere (females in breeding condition). If a budgie's cere becomes too crusty, vets call this phenomenon a hyperkeratosis, see photo on the right. In some cases such excrescences have to be medically treated by a vet because the nostrils might become overgrown by the horny substance. In most cases, female budgies are affected by this health issue, but in general it can also occur in male birds.
Injuries of the cere or the nose can be caused by different things, such as fights or collisions. Some cere injuries are very serious because such wounds tend to bleed severely and it is necessary to treat them with iron chloride or something comparable to save the bird from bleeding to death. It is also recommended to contact an avian vet and make sure there is no infection and the wound will heal nicely.
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